Personality refers to setting one’s attitudes to act, think and feel, especially when he is in touch with others or respond to a situation. Personality includes habits, attitudes, and the nature of a person when dealing with others. The concept of personality is a very broad concept, making it difficult to formulate a definition that can cover the whole. Therefore, the understanding of one another expert was also different. However, different definitions are complementary and enrich our understanding of the concept of personality. Is it personality? In general, personality is the essential nature of a person’s attitude is reflected in the difference with others. To understand further the understanding of personality, the following definitions are presented by several experts.
a. MAW Brower
Personality is a pattern of social behavior patterns which include strength, encouragement, desires, opinions, and attitudes a person.
Personality is an arrangement of the elements of mind and soul that determines a person’s behavior or actions.
c. Theodore R. Newcomb
Personality is an organization of attitudes a person has as a background on behavior.
Personality is the overall behavior of an individual with a certain tendency system interacting with a range of situations.
e. Roucek and Warren
Personality is an organization of biological factors, psychological, and sociological underlying behavior. Of understanding expressed by the experts above, we conclude simply that the definition of personality ( personality ) are the traits and qualities typical of the attitude or character representing a person, which includes polapola thoughts and feelings, self-concept, temperament, and mentality which are generally in line with common practice.
2. Elements of the Personality
Personality is unique and second to none. Elements that influence a person’s personality is knowledge, feeling, and instinct.
One’s knowledge comes from rational thinking, which contains a fantasy, understanding, and experiences on a variety of things that obtained from the environment around him. All were recorded in the brain and gradually revealed in the form of behavior in society.
Feelings is a situation in human consciousness that produces a positive or negative judgment about something or a particular event. Feelings are always subjective, so the assessment of a person to a thing or event will differ with the judgment of others. For example an assessment of an empty school hours. Maybe you think of it as something unpleasant because it feel the loss did not get the lesson. As with the assessment of friends who consider it as fun. Feeling filled the consciousness of man in her life.
c. Instinct impulse
An instinct that has become the will of every human instinct. It was intended to meet the various needs of human life, both spiritual and physical. There are at least seven kinds of instinct, which is to preserve life, sex, foraging, socializing and interacting with fellow humans, mimicking the behavior of others, filial, and the beauty of form, color, sound, and motion.
3. Factors that Shape Personality
In general, personality development is influenced by five factors, namely biological heritage, natural environment heritage, social heritage, the experience of human groups, and a unique experience.
a. Biological Inheritance (Heredity)
Affect the biological heritage of human life and every human being has a unique biological heritage, distinct from others. This means that no one in this world that have physical characteristics that are identical to others, even though the twins. Hereditary factors affect the hospitality, compulsive behaviors (had done), and ease in forming leadership, self-control, impulses, attitudes, and interests. The most important biological legacy lies in differences in intelligence and biological maturity. This situation had an impact on a person’s personality. But many scientists argue that the development potential of biological inheritance is influenced by one’s social experience. Talent requires a suggestion, teaching, and training to develop themselves through life together with other human beings.
b. Heritage of the Natural Environment (Natural Environment)
Differences in climate, topography, and natural resources, causes people to adjust to the outdoors. Through this adjustment, all by itself and people’s behavior patterns are influenced by the nature of the cultural environment. For example, people who live on the beach with the livelihoods of the fishermen have a distinct personality with the people who live in agricultural areas. They have a tougher tone than the people who live in agricultural areas, because it must match with the sound of waves lapping. It was carried in daily life and has become a personality.
c. Social and Cultural Heritage
We know that between man, nature and culture have a very close relationship and mutual influence. Humans are trying to change nature to suit their culture in order to make ends meet. For example, humans clearing forests for agriculture. While the culture that contributed to giving members of the community’s personality color.
d. Group Experiences
Human life is influenced by the group. Groups of people, consciously or unconsciously have influenced its members, and its members adjust to the group. Each group inherit the typical experience is not given by another group to its members, so that there arose the distinctive personality of community members.
e. Unique experiences
Everyone has a different personality to others, even those that come from the same family, grew up in the same culture, as well as having the same physical environment as well. Why is that? Although they never get an experience similar in some respects, but differ in a few other things. Given the experience of each person is unique and has no experience of anyone with a perfect duplicate.
By Paul B. Horton , the experience is not simply grow, but together. Experience that has been passed to the personality of its own color and personality that blends in, only then comes the next experience.
In addition to forming the five factors of personality that we have discussed above, FG Robbins in Sumadi Suryabrata (2003), suggests there are five factors that form the basis of personality, namely nature, prenatal environment, individual differences, environmental, and motivation.
The nature of the overall potential of the person who inherited from his father and mother. In this case, Robbins more emphasis on biological properties is one of the things that are passed from parents to their children.
b. Prenatal Environment
Prenatal environment is the environment in the mother’s womb. In this period the individual gain indirect influence of the mother. Therefore, the mother’s condition will determine the condition of baby in the womb, both physically and psychologically. Many events are already proving that a mother who at the time contain psychological pressure was so great, usually during the birth process can be said there is interference or not current.
c. Individual differences
Individual differences is one of the factors that influence the process of socialization from birth. Children grow and develop as a unique individual, different from other individuals, and be selective of the influence of the environment.
Environment includes all conditions that surround individuals who influence the process of socialization. Socialization process will affect the individual personality.
Motivations are drives, both of which come from within and outside the individual to move individuals to act or do something. Dorongandorongan is what will shape the individual’s personality as a color in public life.
4. Theories of Personality Development
There are several theories that address the development of personality in the process of socialization. These theories include theory of Tabula Rasa, Mirror of Self Theory, Theory of Self antisocial, Ralph Examples of theory and subcultural theory Soerjono Soekanto.
a. Human Understanding Theory
In 1690, John Locke argued in his Theory of Human Understanding, entitled “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.” According to this theory, human newborn as a clean slate and it will be like what someone’s personality is determined by the experience acquired. theory assumes that all individuals at birth have the same personality potential. Personality of a person after it was solely the result of experiences after birth (Haviland, 1989:398). Differences in the experience of someone that causes a variety of personality and the personality differences between individuals with one individual to another.
The theory is entirely unacceptable. We know that every person has a tendency typical of the innate legacy that will influence his personality in adulthood. But also must be remembered that the only genetic inheritance determine the potential of each person’s personality. Growth and development potential is not like a straight line, but there may be some deviations. Develop one’s personality does not always correspond to the potential he inherited.
It’s genetic inheritance affects personality, but not absolutely determine the nature of one’s personality. Life experiences, particularly experiences gained at an early age, largely determines an individual’s personality.
b. Mirror of Self Theory
Mirror of Self Theory (The Looking Glass Self) is presented by Charles H. Cooley . This theory is the idea that one can only grow with the help of others. Each person describes themselves with how others view them. For example, some parents and family who say that the beautiful daughter. If it is consistently repeated often by people who berbedabeda, eventually she will feel and act like a beauty. This theory is based on an analogy with the way the mirror and assuming that looked at the mirror image as a visible image of ourselves to others.
Picture of a person is not always associated with objective faktafakta. For example, a real pretty girl, but never felt confident that she is beautiful, because it starts from the beginning of his life has always treated his parents as a child that is not attractive. Thus, through the responses of others, one to determine whether she is beautiful or ugly, or stupid great, generous or stingy, and others.
There are three steps in the process of formation of the mirror itself.
1) The imagination of other people’s views of oneself, such as how to dress or behavior in the eyes of others.
2) The imagination of the judgment of others about what is contained in the self of each person. For example, clothes to wear.
3) Feeling one’s judgments about it, like a proud, disappointed, excited, or low self-esteem.
Nonetheless, this theory has two drawbacks of the highlights for many. What are they?
First , the view Cooley is considered more suitable to understand certain groups in society who are different from other groups. For example, teenage children, are sensitive to accept other people’s opinions about him. While adults do not ignore or ignore the views of others, if it does not suit him.
Second , this theory is too simple. Cooley did not describe a mature personality who can assess the behavior of others and also himself.
c. Theory of Self antisocial
This theory was put forward by Sigmund Freud . He argues that human beings have three parts, the id, superego, and ego.
1) Id is the central passion and the drive that is instinctual, not social, greedy, and antisocial.
2) The ego is the part that is conscious and rational control governing superego against the id. Ego can be roughly referred to as a reasonable mind.
3) The superego is a complex of ideals and social values are internalized and form one’s conscience or referred to as social consciousness.
Main idea of this theory is that the community or social environment will forever be in conflict with selfhood and forever preclude a person to achieve pleasure. Society has always inhibit expression of aggression, sexual desire, and the other drives or in other words, the id is always at war with the superego . Id usually suppressed, but at times he would take challenging superego , thus causing the difficult burden of guilt borne by themselves. Anxiety that gripped a person that can be measured by starting at the dotted away superego ruling against the id and ego . In this way, Freud emphasized the aspects of mental stress and frustration as a result of living in groups.
d. Examples of theories and Ralph
This theory says that each culture emphasizes a series of public influence on individuals who grew up under the culture. These influences vary from one culture to another culture, but all part of the experience for each person included in a particular society (Horton, 1993:97). Each community will provide a specific experience that is not provided by other societies to their members. Of social experiences that arise from the formation of a distinctive personality of the community. Furthermore, from the formation of a distinctive personality, we know the general features of a particular community as a manifestation of the personality of the community.
e. Subcultural theory of Soerjono Soekanto
This theory tries to see the link between culture and personality in a more narrow scope, which is a special cultural (subcultural). He says there are several types of special cultures that influence personality, is as follows.
1) On the Basis of Culture Special Local Factors
Here is found a distinct personality of individuindividu who is a member of a particular community, for each live in areas where there are different with different specific cultures.
2) Living in the City and the Village of Different
Characteristic that can be seen in members of the public who live in big cities is an individualistic attitude. While the village is more manifest themselves as people who have an attitude of mutual cooperation is very high.
3) Special Culture Social Class
In fact in the society, each social class developed a culture different from each other, which in turn produces a different personality on each of its members. For example, the habit of the people who come from upper-class vacation time in filling out of the country. These habits will produce a different personality with other social classes in society.
4) On the Basis of Religious Culture Special
Religion also has a great influence to shape an individual’s personality. The existence of certain mazhabmazhab can give birth in a religion different personalities among the different sects anggotaanggota.
5) On the Basis of Culture Special Employment or Expertise
Job or skill a person has also had an influence on his personality. An example of a teacher’s personality is different with the military. These professions have different ways of educating children and how to get along.
5. Stages of Personality Development
Stages of development of individual personality can not be equated with each other. But in general can be formulated as follows.
a. First Phase
The first phase started in children aged one to two years, when the child begins to know himself. In this phase, we can distinguish a person’s personality into two main parts, namely as follows.
1) The first section contains the basic elements of the various so-called attitude attitudes more or less permanent and not easily changed at a later date. These elements are the basic structure of personality (basic personality structure) and the capital personality . The second element is the nature of the man who had been held as a biological inheritance from his parents.
2) The second part contains the elements that made up the beliefs or assumptions that are more flexible easily changed or can be revisited at a later date.
b. Second Phase
This phase is the phase that is very effective in shaping and developing the talents that exist in a child. This phase starts from the age of two to three years. This phase is the phase of development in which the sense I have had a child begins to develop his character according to the type of relationships that exist in the environment, including the structure of values and cultural structures.
This phase lasts until the child ahead of a relatively long period until maturity is starting to look to the personality types that seem typical behavior in these matters.
1) Drives / Actions
This is a central element of the human will to perform an activity which in turn will form the specific motifs to create a desire. Drivers are distinguished by the will and desires. The will of the impulses that are culturally, that is according to the level of civilization and one’s economic level. While the passions are driven by the will of biological needs, such as appetite, lust (sexual), anger, and others.
The instinct is a natural impulse that is inherent with the nature of living things. For example, a mother has a strong instinct to have children, parenting, and raised to adulthood. This instinct can be performed on any living thing without having to learn first seems to have fused with the essence of living things.
Emotion or thrill is something intangible that is the source of human feeling. Emotions can be a measure of all things that exist in the human soul, such as happy, sad, beautiful, harmonious, and others.
Temperament is the embodiment of a combination of hearts and minds of men that look of his countenance and the movements of a person. This temperament is one element of personality that started the real, visible, and identified by others.
5) Intelligence (Intelligence Quetient-IQ)
Intelligence is the ability to think which is owned by someone. Those of his intelligence is IQ, memory-memory knowledge, and experiences that a person has acquired during socialization.
Talent is something that is essentially an abstract one obtained for the biological heritage handed down by ancestors, such as artistic talent, sports, trade, politics, and more. Talent is something very fundamental in developing the skills that exist in a person. Each person has different talents, although derived from the same father and mother.
c. The Third Phase
In the process of personality development, this phase is the last phase which is characterized by the stability of the typical behaviors of the person.
The third phase of development occurred at a relatively fixed, with the formation of the typical behaviors as a manifestation of a personality that is abstract. Once the personality is formed permanently, it can be classified three types of personality, namely the normative personality, authoritarian personality, and personality of the border.
1) Normative Personality ( Normative Man )
This personality is the ideal personality type, in which a person has strong principles for implementing the central values that exist in him as a result of socialization in the past. If someone has a personality of normative socialization process occurs between the treatment of himself and his treatment of others in accordance with the existing values in society. This type is characterized by the ability to adjust to a very high and can accommodate many of the aspirations of others.
2) Authoritarian Personality ( Authoritarian Man )
This type is formed through a process of socialization is more concerned with individual self-interest rather than the interests of others. This situation often occurs in a single child, a child who since childhood have the support and protection of the environment surrounding people, and children from childhood lead the group.
3) Unstable Personality
personality is a personality type that is relatively unstable in which the characteristic of the principles and behavior often experience changes, so as if someone had more than one personality style . Someone said if people that have the unstable personality has a cultural dualism, such as mating or because of certain situations until they must serve two different cultural structures.